Friday, November 29, 2019

The Values And Ethics Of The Profession Social Work Essay Essay Example

The Values And Ethics Of The Profession Social Work Essay Essay Social workers are put into hard state of affairss on a regular footing. The Health and attention professions council ( HCPC ) set guidelines to help the challenges societal workers face. To stay registered, a societal worker demands to stay by the HCPC codification of moralss to guarantee bringing of the best possible service for users. Working within the guidelines set can be disputing as it may do struggle with the service users values or potentially the societal workers ain values. For the intent of this essay, moralss will be defined as professional duties and regulations of behavior ( Meacham, 2007 ) . Social work values will be defined as a scope of beliefs about what is regarded as worthy or valuable in a societal work context ( BASW, 2012 p17 ) . This essay focuses on two countries of the personalisation agenda that can do challenges for societal workers ; adjustment and personal budgets. The mark service user group for the intents of this essay is people with disablemen ts. Using the definition stated in the Equality Act, ( 2010 ) A individual is considered handicapped if they have a physical or mental damage that has a substantial and long-term negative consequence on their ability to make normal day-to-day activities . Legislation and demands to back up grownups with disablements is increasing for the over 11 million people with a restricting long term unwellness, damage or disablement in Great Britain ( office for disablement issues, 2012 ) . However, handicapped people report assorted feelings and reactions to the statute laws and regulations put in topographic point sing their attention and allowances ( Dalley, 1991 ) . The societal philosophical attacks to societal work will be used to cover with the challenges and struggles societal workers face. This essay touches upon Kant s deontology ; Bentham s and Mills utilitarianism and Biestek s 7 rules attack. We will write a custom essay sample on The Values And Ethics Of The Profession Social Work Essay specifically for you for only $16.38 $13.9/page Order now We will write a custom essay sample on The Values And Ethics Of The Profession Social Work Essay specifically for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9/page Hire Writer We will write a custom essay sample on The Values And Ethics Of The Profession Social Work Essay specifically for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9/page Hire Writer Immanuel Kant ( 1785 ) developed the theory of deontology. This means that societal workers need to be advancing good actions and the right motivation, nevertheless the effect is non of import and the thought of an acceptable motivation is capable to opinion ( Adapted by Hartsell, 2006 ; Banks, 2001 ; Reiman, 2009 ; Meacham, 2008 ) . Subsequently, Kant introduced the thought of a categorical jussive mood ( CI ) . A CI maintains a individual s motivations for their actions and they hence should be acceptable as a cosmopolitan jurisprudence. A Therefore people should move on motivations that can be used by everyone in a moral society and lead to esteem for people ( Darwell, 2002 cited in Reiman, 2009 ) . From this it is seen that people should be treated as an terminal, for illustration a pick or desire, instead than a agency ( object ) to our ain terminals. He believed that everyone should be treated with respect regardless of their features or behavior ( Banks, 2001 ) . Kant negotiations about regard for the single individual and advancing self finding. Biestek ( 1961 ) produced 7 rules that over clip have become extremely influential to societal workers looking at values and moralss within their pattern. 5 chief rules have been used: Individualization ; Recognition that each service user has alone qualities, good and bad. Purposeful look of feeling ; Recognition that service users need to show their feelings ( particularly negative 1s ) freely. Credence ; The societal worker should be able to work with a service user without go throughing opinion and accepting Persons for who they are, including their strengths and their failings. Non judgemental attitude ; Social workers should be able to non go through opinion or assign guilt to the service user. It is about judging the service users behaviour User self finding ; the societal worker should be able to steer the service user, depending on their on their capacity, to hold freedom in doing their ain determinations and picks ( Adapted by Banks, 2001 ) . Utilitarianism focuses on a consequentialist attack as it focuses on the effects of the action, instead than the actions themselves. ( Scheffler, 1994 cited in Reiman, 2009 ) . Decisions should be made on the consequences and effects it could hold on society instead than on a personal and single footing, and to advance maximal good within society. The right action produces the greatest balance of good over evil the rule of public-service corporation. ( Banks, 2001 ) . Utilitarianism is based on a theory developed by Bentham and Mills who looked into two subdivisions of utilitarianism ; hedonic and ideal utilitarianism. Bentham explored hedonic utilitarianism, where good was matched with felicity. Mills explored the thought of ideal utilitarianism. This focused on good being about virtuousnesss, truth and cognition, non merely felicity. ( Banks, 2001 ) . The theory promotes the greatest good for the greatest figure of people. When doing a determination it is imperative that the effec t is considered. Therefore as a societal worker, it would be good to look at the effects of the extroverted action and measure what would be most good and least harmful to the service user. In the late 1980 s, the Government recognised that an betterment in entree to community services was required. The Government were committed to supplying more support for people with long term demands by helping and back uping persons to pull off their conditions and supplying services they require in the community instead than in long-stay infirmaries. ( Oliver, 1996 ) Morris ( 1993 ) conducted a survey that looked into handicapped persons who needed twenty-four hours to twenty-four hours services. He found that handicapped persons were get downing to experience a sense of hopelessness and weakness when seeking to entree statutory services. Historically, societal workers assessed and told service users what services they needed. Through the personalisation docket, and the debut of direct payments, service users told the societal worker their demands. For the first clip, the societal worker had to accept the service user s self-assessment and so utilize the appraisal to see if the hi ghlighted issues were eligible under Fair Access to Care ( 2003 ) statute law. Direct payments were introduced in 1997 and societal workers had to interpret service user needs into a pecuniary value to enable them to buy their ain service. The purpose was to give persons command over their attention and their lives. Direct payments evolved into personalised budgets and have further evolved into a more individualized budget / service program. The demand for alteration and equality of service proviso has been recognised as more positions are being voiced by people with disablements. In line with Beistek s theory, service users are utilizing purposeful look of feeling and self-government to enable the societal workers to cognize their wants and needs. This has resulted in alterations which could cut down the potency for struggle in the hereafter. A farther challenge is budgetary control. Service users frequently want services that are financially unavailable to them. Although moralss province that service users should be encouraged to hold self- finding, be treated as a whole and the societal worker should advance and supply information sing their attention ( BASW, 2012 ) , the service users pick can non ever be guaranteed. Utilitarianism would propose that this is because if service users ever received the services they wanted, the societal worker would non be advancing the greatest good for the greatest figure, alternatively would be taking a more Kantian attack of advancing moral good. These two philosophical attacks cause struggle within themselves. The Mental Capacity Act ( 2005 ) says a individual lacks capacity in relation to a affair if at the stuff clip he is unable to do a determination for himself in relation to the affair because of an damage of, or a perturbation in the operation of, the head or encephalon . ( s2 ) . This leads to challenges and struggles for societal workers. If the service user had capacity, there could be conflict over the manner they spend their budget which could take to the societal worker handling that single without regard. Following the BASW codification of moralss ( 2012 ) , it states that societal workers should esteem the right to self-government. Kant would back up this position as, by the societal worker back uping the person to run into their ain self-defined demands, the societal worker is advancing good actions that will in bend produce good results for the person. The societal worker demands to recognize that the person has human rights and freedom to voice their positions. Burton ( 1996 ) showed that there was a failure to recognize the unequal power dealingss between the societal worker in control of proviso of services and the service user who relies on the services. This therefore would sabotage Beistek s rules of self-government as, although the service user is voicing their sentiment, the societal worker is non listening and this could be seen as endangering the rules of personalisation and the codification of moralss that are imperative. The execution of The Mental Capacity Act needs to be reviewed to guarantee workers are following statute law and moralss. It should non be assumed person lacks capacity because they have a disablement. On the other manus, if the service user did nt hold capacity, it could do struggle between the societal worker and the paid carer and/or unpaid carers. If the service user lacks capacity, how would the societal worker or the carers be able to measure what was best for the person? A societal worker would hold to uphold and promote human self-respect and wellbeing every bit good as authorising the person. ( BASW, 2012 ) . These moralss and values are supported by Beistek s theory. Workers need to handle the service user with regard, be non -judgemental and accept the state of affairs the service user may be in. The societal worker hence would merely be able to move upon their appraisal which should include the carer s positions on what is best for the service user. Utilitarianism, an alternate statement, would reason what s the greatest good for the greatest figure? What would profit the service user more? The societal workers positions or the carer s positions? The results need to gua rantee that the maximal people are happy. The societal worker could make the maximal felicity and cut down struggle by utilizing authorization. The societal worker would esteem the demands and penchants of the service user, via the carers and household members every bit good as recognizing their ain biass to guarantee the correct services are offered. The Community Care Act ( 1990 ) promotes attention in the community and people remaining within their ain place, leting the person to utilize their personal budget and have carers to advance independency. There is grounds to propose for illustration, persons who have fractured a limb, menu better when they recuperate in their ain places. ( Pignolo, Keenan and Hebela, 2011 ) . Adjustment is a major concern for many service users ( Davis and Wainwright, 1996 ) . One facet that could do struggle is the pattern of puting immature people in immature disablement units, belongingss that are specifically designed for people with learning disablements. Although this could be seen as a solution for people to interact and hold support, there is a possible struggle as the person can non take where they want to populate and may populate a distance from family/friends. If placed in a intent built constitution, the persons are classed as being housed by the local authorization and hence do non acquire to take alternate locations ( Oliver, 1996 ) . The quandary for the societal worker is the demand to take the persons positions into history whilst equilibrating their demands and wants, peculiarly if the service user lacks the capacity to do the determination. It is improper for anyone to subscribe a occupancy understanding on behalf of an person who lacks capacity. A capacity appraisal needs to be undertaken to guarantee the service user understands how to keep that occupancy. In order to continue, an application needs to be made to The Court of Protection. This could take to conflict as the societal worker and lodging section demand to continue the jurisprudence, nevertheless many households feel they have the right to subscribe a occupancy for their handicapped household member and happen it hard to accept that this is non the instance. Harmonizing to BASW ( 2012 ) , the societal worker demands to develop professional relationships with the service user and the household, uphold the repute and values of the profession every bit good as recognizing diverseness and handling the person as a whole. Utilitarianism would urge looking at what benefits the whole household, instead than merely the service user. Challenges arise when the service user lacks capacity. Using the useful attack, it could be said that the service user should nt be given a occupancy as it does nt advance the greatest good for the greatest figure. This position is in struggle with BASW codifications of moralss. It could be seen as unethical pattern and lead to farther struggle. Beistek would back up the position of BASW in utilizing the specific value base that service users should be allowed to freely show their feelings, both positive and negative, and the societal worker should listen and do a determination in an accepting and non-judgemental manner. However, Kant would state that although the effect of non acquiring a pick in where the service user lives is a negative result, the purpose of puting them in a place, with other people to socialize is a good moral opinion that is entirely profiting the person. Another possible struggle could be older handicapped persons being forced into attention. The Sutherland Report ( 1999 ) claimed that older handicapped people were being forced into institutional attention excessively early due to the deficiency of alternate attention at place. Sixsmith and Sixsmith ( 2008 ) provided grounds that by 2008 there had been a displacement in attention proviso and that the Personalisation Agenda meant that people were staying in their place for longer and having appropriate services. However there is a farther potency for struggle when suiting people, with disablements, to remain in their places. Persons may desire to turn old at place but is this possible for people with significantly reduced mobility? Many places are unaccessible to wheelchair users and those with important mobility damages ( Burns, 2004 ) . There is a Government strategy whereby handicapped people can use for a handicapped installation grant to hold their places adapted, and certain per sons have to re-pay the Government, therefore the Government is non financing expensive attention bundles. The function of the societal worker would be to negociate, support and authorise the service user to hold their demands met in the most appropriate, coveted manner. Harmonizing to Kant s theory, holding a loan is the moral good as people will be able to stay at place for longer, advancing felicity and community attention. This would be supported by the values of BASW which states societal workers need to handle the service user as a whole and respect their right to self-government. In contrast to Kant s theory, Utilitarianism would see weighing up the effects of taking the service user from their house and into an altered and safe environment. I.e. a attention place could be seen as an easier option for handicapped people to have attention. This position could do struggle because the societal worker is traveling against the wants and desires of the service user. Utilitarianism looks at the best result for society instead than on an single degree. Therefore, by traveling persons out of the house into the attention place may supply maximal felicity for society, although it disregards the person s positions and sentiments. This is a unfavorable judgment of the theoretical account as many service users could potentially non hold their demands met in a mode that is acceptable to them due to the focal point being on the benefit to society. This could be peculiarly true e.g. for people with English as a 2nd linguistic communication or who follow a spiritual religion. However, Beistek would hold with Kant in advancing self-government. A cardinal subject running throughout this essay is respect for the single individual as a ego finding being. Both Kant and Beistek promote this and hence look to be the societal philosophical theoretical accounts best tailored towards societal work values and moralss. There are clear struggles between traditional societal work and the personalisation docket for people with disablements. These struggles have been reduced with the debut of HCPC moralss. If the societal worker systematically uses these theories whilst working with struggle and disputing service users so the BASW moralss will be maintained and the service users will have the best appropriate service available within Fair entree to care standards.

Monday, November 25, 2019

Grasshoppers, Crickets, and Katydids, Order Orthoptera

Grasshoppers, Crickets, and Katydids, Order Orthoptera If youve walked through the grass on a warm summer day, youve likely encountered members of the order Orthopterathe grasshoppers, crickets, and katydids. Orthoptera means straight wings, but these insects would be better named for their characteristic jumping legs. Description Crickets, grasshoppers, and katydids undergo incomplete or gradual metamorphosis. Nymphs look similar to mature adults but lack fully-developed wings. Powerful hind legs, built for jumping, characterize the Orthopteran insects. The muscular legs propel grasshoppers and other members of the order for distances up to 20 times their body lengths. Insects in the order Orthoptera are known for more than their jumping skills, however. Many are accomplished singers as well. Males of some species attract mates by producing sounds with their legs or wings. This form of sound production is called stridulation and involves rubbing the upper and lower wings or the hind leg and wing together to create a vibration. When males call for mates using sounds, those species must also have ears. Dont look at the head to find them, however. Grasshoppers have auditory organs on the abdomen, while crickets and katydids listen using their front legs. Orthopterans are usually described as herbivores, but in truth, many species will scavenge other dead insects in addition to feeding on plants. The order Orthoptera is subdivided into two groupsEnsifera, the long-horned insects (with long antennae), and Caelifera, the short-horned insects. Habitat and Distribution Members of the order Orthoptera exist in terrestrial habitats throughout the world. Though often associated with fields and meadows, there are Orthopteran species that prefer caves, deserts, bogs, and seashores. Worldwide, scientists have described over 20,000 species in this group. Major Families in the Order Gryllidae - true or field cricketsAcrididae - short-horned grasshoppersTetrigidae - grouse locusts or pygmy grasshoppersGryllotalpidae - mole cricketsTettigoniidae - long-horned grasshoppers and katydids Orthopterans of Interest Oecanthus fultoni, the snowy tree cricket, chirps the temperature. Count the number of chirps in 15 seconds and add 40 to get the temperature in Fahrenheit.Ant crickets of the subfamily Myrmecophilidae live within ant nests and are wingless.Large lubber grasshoppers (family Romaleidae) raise their hindwings when threatened and produce a foul-smelling liquid from pores in the thorax.The Mormon crickets (Anabrus simplex) are so named for a legend. In 1848, the first crops of Mormon settlers were threatened by a swarm of these voracious eaters, only to be eaten by a flock of gulls themselves. Sources: Insects: Their Natural History and Diversity, Stephen A. MarshallKaufman Field Guide to Insects of North America, Eric R. Eaton, and Kenn KaufmanOrthoptera - Dept. of Entomology, North Carolina State University

Friday, November 22, 2019

Beloved on Slavery

This is true because most of the major events in the story relate to some type of slavery. The slavery that drives the novel does not have to be strictly physical slavery. Morrison†s characters are slaves physically and mentally. Although they are former slaves, they are forever trapped by horrible memories. The type of slavery the novel initially depicts does not correspond to what really happened to slaves in the 1800s. At Sweet Home, Mr. and Mrs. Garner treated their slaves like real people. Mr. Garner is proud of his slaves and treats them like men, not animals. . . . they were Sweet Home men — the ones Mr. Garner bragged about while other farmers shook their heads in warning at the phrase. [He said,] â€Å". . . my niggers is men every one of em. Bought em thataway, raised em thataway. Men every one. â€Å"1 The things that occurred at Sweet Home while Mr. Garner is alive are rather conservative compared to what slaves actually suffered during this time period. Under the management of schoolteacher, things change dramatically. He turns Sweet Home into a real slave plantation. He treats and refers to the slaves as animals. He is responsible for the horrible memories embedded in Sethe and Paul D. Sethe feels the impact of slavery to its fullest extent. Slavery pushes her to kill her baby daughter. She feels that is the only way to protect her beloved daughter from the pain and suffering she would endure if she became a slave. The minute she sees schoolteachers hat, Sethe†s first instinct is to protect her children. Knowing that slave catchers will do anything to bring back fugitive slaves and that dead slaves are not worth anything, Sethe took matters into her own hands. On page 164 Sethe says, â€Å"I stopped him. I took and put my babies where they†d be safe. † Paul D asks, â€Å"How? Your boys gone you don†t know where. One girl dead, the other won†t leave the yard. How did it work? â€Å"They ain†t at Sweet Home. Schoolteacher ain†t got em,† replies Sethe. This one incident does not only affect Sethe, but it changes things for Beloved and Denver as well. Beloved loses her life to slavery. Her own mother sacrifices her existence in order to keep her out of slavery. As for Denver, she is indirectly affected by the horrors of slavery. She has to put up with living in a haunted house because her mother refuses to run away again. On page 15 Sethe says, â€Å"I got a tree on my back and a haint in my house, and nothing in between but the daughter I am holding in my arms. No more running — from nothing. I will never run from another thing on this earth. † Sethe becomes a slave again when she realizes who Beloved really is. She feels indebted to Beloved for taking her life. In an effort to gain forgiveness, Sethe decides to focus all her energy on pleasing Beloved. When once or twice Sethe tried to assert herself — be the unquestioned mother whose word was law and who knew what was best — Beloved slammed things, wiped the table clean of plates, threw salt on the floor, broke a windowpane. †¦ Nobody said, You raise your hand to me and I will knock you into the middle of next week. †¦ No, no. They mended the plates, swept the salt, and little by little it dawned on Denver that if Sethe didn†t wake up one morning and pick up a knife, Beloved might. 2 Then there†s Paul D, who replaces his â€Å"red heart† with a tin tobacco box. He refuses to love anything strongly and establish long term relationships because he is still hurting from losing his brothers and friends to schoolteacher. Schoolteacher also takes his pride and manhood away by forcing him to wear a bit. Paul D compares himself to a chicken. On page 72 he says, â€Å"But wasn†t no way I†d ever be Paul D again, living or dead. Schoolteacherchanged me. I was something else and that something else was less than a chicken sitting in the sun on a tub. † As a member of the chain gang he suffers another type of slavery because he is both a prisoner and a sexual servant. Even after he escapes and is a free man, Paul D is still a slave. He is a slave to his memory. Having been through so many horrible events, he has trouble finding happiness again. In her novel, Morrison uses the phrase, â€Å"Freeing yourself was one thing; claiming ownership of that freed self was another. † This applies to each and every one of her characters. Sethe will always be haunted by the memory of killing her own flesh and blood. It will be a long time until Paul D is ready to turn his tin box back into a red heart. While Denver finally ventures out of 124, she is not going to forget being shunned by the community and being held captive by her own house. As for Beloved, she is her own slave. Her constant dependency on Sethe makes her weak. Beloved needs to free herself from Sethe. Though it is hard, she needs to accept what has happened and move on. Beloved is about a group of people and how they deal with life†s hardships. Many issues in the story deal with control. There is a constant struggle for power throughout the novel. Each character fights to free him/herself from something or someone. The major theme in the story is freedom and how to acquire it. The critics are correct in saying that the novel is primarily about slavery, but they should mention that slavery means more than just being an indentured servant. Beloved on Slavery This is true because most of the major events in the story relate to some type of slavery. The slavery that drives the novel does not have to be strictly physical slavery. Morrison†s characters are slaves physically and mentally. Although they are former slaves, they are forever trapped by horrible memories. The type of slavery the novel initially depicts does not correspond to what really happened to slaves in the 1800s. At Sweet Home, Mr. and Mrs. Garner treated their slaves like real people. Mr. Garner is proud of his slaves and treats them like men, not animals. . . . they were Sweet Home men — the ones Mr. Garner bragged about while other farmers shook their heads in warning at the phrase. [He said,] â€Å". . . my niggers is men every one of em. Bought em thataway, raised em thataway. Men every one. â€Å"1 The things that occurred at Sweet Home while Mr. Garner is alive are rather conservative compared to what slaves actually suffered during this time period. Under the management of schoolteacher, things change dramatically. He turns Sweet Home into a real slave plantation. He treats and refers to the slaves as animals. He is responsible for the horrible memories embedded in Sethe and Paul D. Sethe feels the impact of slavery to its fullest extent. Slavery pushes her to kill her baby daughter. She feels that is the only way to protect her beloved daughter from the pain and suffering she would endure if she became a slave. The minute she sees schoolteachers hat, Sethe†s first instinct is to protect her children. Knowing that slave catchers will do anything to bring back fugitive slaves and that dead slaves are not worth anything, Sethe took matters into her own hands. On page 164 Sethe says, â€Å"I stopped him. I took and put my babies where they†d be safe. † Paul D asks, â€Å"How? Your boys gone you don†t know where. One girl dead, the other won†t leave the yard. How did it work? â€Å"They ain†t at Sweet Home. Schoolteacher ain†t got em,† replies Sethe. This one incident does not only affect Sethe, but it changes things for Beloved and Denver as well. Beloved loses her life to slavery. Her own mother sacrifices her existence in order to keep her out of slavery. As for Denver, she is indirectly affected by the horrors of slavery. She has to put up with living in a haunted house because her mother refuses to run away again. On page 15 Sethe says, â€Å"I got a tree on my back and a haint in my house, and nothing in between but the daughter I am holding in my arms. No more running — from nothing. I will never run from another thing on this earth. † Sethe becomes a slave again when she realizes who Beloved really is. She feels indebted to Beloved for taking her life. In an effort to gain forgiveness, Sethe decides to focus all her energy on pleasing Beloved. When once or twice Sethe tried to assert herself — be the unquestioned mother whose word was law and who knew what was best — Beloved slammed things, wiped the table clean of plates, threw salt on the floor, broke a windowpane. †¦ Nobody said, You raise your hand to me and I will knock you into the middle of next week. †¦ No, no. They mended the plates, swept the salt, and little by little it dawned on Denver that if Sethe didn†t wake up one morning and pick up a knife, Beloved might. 2 Then there†s Paul D, who replaces his â€Å"red heart† with a tin tobacco box. He refuses to love anything strongly and establish long term relationships because he is still hurting from losing his brothers and friends to schoolteacher. Schoolteacher also takes his pride and manhood away by forcing him to wear a bit. Paul D compares himself to a chicken. On page 72 he says, â€Å"But wasn†t no way I†d ever be Paul D again, living or dead. Schoolteacherchanged me. I was something else and that something else was less than a chicken sitting in the sun on a tub. † As a member of the chain gang he suffers another type of slavery because he is both a prisoner and a sexual servant. Even after he escapes and is a free man, Paul D is still a slave. He is a slave to his memory. Having been through so many horrible events, he has trouble finding happiness again. In her novel, Morrison uses the phrase, â€Å"Freeing yourself was one thing; claiming ownership of that freed self was another. † This applies to each and every one of her characters. Sethe will always be haunted by the memory of killing her own flesh and blood. It will be a long time until Paul D is ready to turn his tin box back into a red heart. While Denver finally ventures out of 124, she is not going to forget being shunned by the community and being held captive by her own house. As for Beloved, she is her own slave. Her constant dependency on Sethe makes her weak. Beloved needs to free herself from Sethe. Though it is hard, she needs to accept what has happened and move on. Beloved is about a group of people and how they deal with life†s hardships. Many issues in the story deal with control. There is a constant struggle for power throughout the novel. Each character fights to free him/herself from something or someone. The major theme in the story is freedom and how to acquire it. The critics are correct in saying that the novel is primarily about slavery, but they should mention that slavery means more than just being an indentured servant.

Wednesday, November 20, 2019

Modern women in modern songs Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1250 words

Modern women in modern songs - Essay Example As it is, the song invites men to become insensitive to women and it gives men the right to treat women badly under the premise that women are liars and that they cannot be trusted. To give us a clear picture of the way the artist sees women, let us take a look at the lyrics of the song, the tempo of the music, the style, the phrasing and the tone. II. The Anatomy of the Song The song â€Å"Superman† is divided into three parts, namely the intro, the verses and the choruses. To put the song in context, the singer tells the listener about his experience with women and how his experience shaped his opinion about the female population. Although the singer did not really expound on what sad or bad experience he had with women, from the tone of his song, one can clearly see that this person does not trust the female specie and that he does not want to be in a serious relationship with any of them. The song starts with a woman’s voice moaning in the background and Eminem rapp ing in multisyllabic rhymes. Eminem rap along the beat of the drum as he delivers his lines in a rhythmic pattern. The voice of the woman moaning gives the intro of the song a sexual context which picture women as creatures who are meant to sexually satisfy the male. This personification of the female is rather disturbing as females are complex creatures and although they may have a sexual side to them, this sexual side does not define them as persons. Note that as complex creatures, women are capable of a lot of things and to box them in as sexually charged creatures moaning with pleasure is demeaning. The rhythm of the background music does not change much as the song graduate from the introduction and move into Chorus A. The voice of the singer goes with the beat of the drum as we move from the intro of the song to Chorus A and the woman moaning in the background fades away. In Chorus A, he describes how he might love the girl and how the girl might love him too so he comes to re scue the girl like superman does. If we take a closer look at the message of Chorus A, the singer implied that women cannot protect themselves and that they need men to save them. The song shows an even more blatant disregard of women’s potentials and capacities while trying to project men as the superior specie. Stereotyping women as â€Å"weak† creatures is not only grossly unfair, it is also demeaning especially when most women are actually more than capable of taking care of themselves. Verse 1 of the song pictures a woman as somebody who wants to trap the man in marriage. In an effort to get away from the grasp of the woman, the man tries to demean the woman by calling her a â€Å"slut† and saying â€Å"I would never let another chick bring me down.† The first few lines of Verse 1 are rather telling about the mental state of the man especially when he said â€Å"save it bitch, babysit†. Aside from fearing commitment, the singer seem to send a message to the listener that he sees women as homemakers who are only fit to do household chores and babysit. Asking a woman to babysit is not so bad but when you put babysitting in the wrong context, it can become quite offensive to the female sensibilities. Note that parenting should be a shared responsibility so both men and women have the duty to take care of the kids. Verse 1 of the

Monday, November 18, 2019

Personal reflective journal examining key positive psychological Essay

Personal reflective journal examining key positive psychological constructs - Essay Example Everyone wants to have the freedom to do the things they want to do, this is because everyone abides in the principle of pursuit of happiness. In happiness, humans find glory, peace and freedom. What does it need to be happy? Does a person need to be rich? Strong? Influential? I believe it is more than that. There are those who have everything in life, yet they are not happy. And there are those who could not eat three times a day but are pretty satisfied with their lives. Take for example the people in Middle East, they are being threatened by wars every day. Death, starvation and fear are common elements of their day to day lives, but they could still manage to dream of a bright future for them and for their families (Burke, 1993). Whenever I hear success stories of people from Middle East in television, I realize that life’s problems could be overcome by aspiration and willingness to succeed. It’s Tuesday already, prior to my critical point of realization: I was less of an ordinary person. There was nothing exciting in my life. I worked to eat, I ate to live and I lived because I had to. While it is true that humans mature as they grow, I thought that I was just going to stay psychologically and socially stunted for the rest of my life. I always wonder why soldiers sent to the most dangerous parts of the world still manage to laugh, play cards and drinks with their friends while on battle. Perhaps this is one of the tangible proofs that life is about psychological mindset and perception towards the world (Harris, 1992, p.185). I write for a major newspaper in one of the most progressive cities in the world. My editor once said that I was one of the best writers she ever met, and that I would be a very successful author someday. I really could not tell whether she was lying or not. Well, I don’t have the capability to tell other people’s emotions, feelings and sentiments. I do not have that much friends. While my readers keep on

Saturday, November 16, 2019

Form and Structure of Abigails Party Emily Huntley Essay Example for Free

Form and Structure of Abigails Party Emily Huntley Essay Mike Leighs Abigails Party was primarily shown on television and wasnt initially meant for the stage, until it was realised how successful it was. The plot is based around a mirror of two partys, one involving 5 adults all living in the same estate but of very contrasting backgrounds and classes which Mike Leigh also depicts, and the other of the sixteen year old daughter of Sue, whos organised a typical teenage rave. The essence of the play is that generally speaking the younger generations should be observed at parties but in Mike Leighs example the irony is that the adults seem just as drunk and obscene as what is imagined next door. This is where the comedy arises and is developed throughout the play as the adults keep a close eye on the teenagers but there is no one to observe the adults. Mike Leigh has also drawn the attention of the audience by focusing on class by contrasting the classes of the characters, Beverly and Lawrence who are aspiring for true middle class, a poor newly married couple and a middle class divorcee. This situation in itself is controversial due to Sue not being nearly as wealthy as Beverly and Lawrence but being by far the most cultured of the group. Another example of this would be shown in Ang, her occupation as a nurse can actually be called a well known and accepted profession, although she has little money and isnt well cultured or travelled, as an outsider you can see the intelligence that Mike Leigh has tried to depict over the other characters. The play is composed of two acts, both of which surprisingly end with the focus on Sue, the most timid character. I think this was purposeful on Leighs behalf as although she seems to be a pretty insignificant character she holds a lot of unknown power over the people in her company. Especially Lawrence who realises her class is above his and he aspires to be like her by seeking her approval. As the play develops so does the amount of alcohol consumed and the tension between the two married couples. Especially from Beverly and Lawrences points of view as they start verbally abusing each other in the presence of their guests, which I believe would not occur otherwise as Ang, Tony and Sue would realise their true characters. Therefore I could also state that the play is structured around class, parties and also alcohol. Everything in the play including props, lighting and sound effects is ultra realistic. The set includes real food and drink with a working record player and lamps, which provide the naturalistic lighting throughout the whole play, and the constant thumping from next door really makes the situation believable. To enhance the realism, Mike Leigh also wrote the play in real time, this means that the duration of the play is natural over the period of an evening, with no days or hours skipped. Another tool used by Mike Leigh to develop true realism is the use of colloquial dialect. There is no stylised or poetic language and also no imagery used. It is written so the audience can easily place themselves in the characters positions. Discussing the structure of the play is hard considering the definitions of A Well Made Play 1.) Exposition (introduction of characters and situations) 2.) Conflict (a huge problem is bought to the surface) 3.) Complications (the problem develops) 4.) Climax (the most dramatic, and tension filled part of the play) 5.) Dà ¯Ã‚ ¿Ã‚ ½nouement (the resolution) The exposition occurs between pages 1 and 13 when the characters are introduced to each other and also the audience. This is the period when the audience makes their own assumptions of the characters, and they can recognise different relationships and tensions. This is when we also realise about Lawrences hectic lifestyle and frequent suffering of heartburn so that his heart attack doesnt come as a complete shock and the audience understand and sympathise more. The conflict is primarily to do with Beverly and Lawrences relationship and the strain that it is clearly under. But we also see the stress between Angela and Tony periodically. The complication is when the tension builds as more and more alcohol is consumed predominantly between Lawrence and Beverly. The climax is clearly Lawrences heart attack, which is the outcome, of a stressful job, a nagging wife, being polite to unwelcome guests the consumption of alcohol and the constant thumping of the party next door. This is when the focus and drive of the play changes completely from the future life these characters have built themselves to the present situation. Lastly the dà ¯Ã‚ ¿Ã‚ ½nouement. In Abigails Party there doesnt seem to be a definite resolution, the play is left on a cliff hanger as the audience is left in the dark as to whether the conflicts have been resolved and if not the final outcome of the situation. Abigails Party is referred to as a comedy, but of various types, it contains a slight element of black comedy in the fact that Lawrence has a heart attack. But throughout the play, Leigh develops another form of comedy, not through one-liners, but due to the characters dialogue and movement etc. For example, Tonys monosyllabic answers, Angelas lack of social etiquette, Sues shyness and total dislike of the situation, Lawrences frequent cultural references even though everyone can see he is uneducated in Shakespeare and Beethoven and is simply attempting and failing to reach a higher social class (nouveaux riches). And Beverlys clear lack of self-control concerning Tony and insulting Angelas lipstick. Abigails Party is essentially written as a comedy, until the end, which presents more opportunities, and shows a more tragic and retrospective feel. This play is unique in that it is completely down to the director as to how they depict it as it can be of two extremes tragic or comic, excluding Lawrences death, which is clearly comic with the reference to Angs cramp etc. In the production I saw, it was comic and I thought this worked well but having considered it to be a tragic play I think this could be just as effective.

Thursday, November 14, 2019

Adult Illiteracy :: Adult Illiteracy Essays

"Learning to read is like learning to drive a car. You take lessons and learn the mechanics and the rules of the road. After a few weeks you have learned how to drive, how to stop, how to shift gears, how to park, and how to signal. You have also learned to stop at a red light and understand road signs. When you are ready, you take a road test, and if you pass, you can drive. Phonics-first works the same way. The child learns the mechanics of reading, and when he's through, he can read. Look and say works differently. The child is taught to read before he has learned the mechanics — the sounds of the letters. It is like learning to drive by starting your car and driving ahead. . .And the mechanics of driving? You would pick those up as you go along." —Rudolf Flesch, "Why Johnny Still Can't Read," 1981 Illiteracy in America is still growing at an alarming rate and that fact has not changed much since Rudolf Flesch wrote his best-selling expose of reading instruction in 1955. Illiteracy continues to be a critical problem, demanding enormous resources from local, state, and federal taxes, while arguments about how to teach children to read continue to rage within the education research community, on Capitol Hill, in business, and in the classroom. The International Reading Association estimates that more than one thousand research papers are prepared each year on the subject of literacy, and that is very likely a low figure. For the past 50 years, America's classrooms have been used by psychologists, sociologists, educationists, and politicians as a giant laboratory for unproven, untried theories of learning, resulting in a near collapse of public education. It is time we begin to move away from "what's new" and move toward "what works." The grim statistics According to the National Adult Literacy Survey, 42 million adult Americans can't read; 50 million can recognize so few printed words they are limited to a 4th or 5th grade reading level; one out of every four teenagers drops out of high school, and of those who graduate, one out of every four has the equivalent or less of an eighth grade education. According to current estimates, the number of functionally illiterate adults is increasing by approximately two and one quarter million persons each year. This number includes nearly 1 million young people who drop out of school before graduation, 400,000 legal immigrants, 100,000 refugees, and 800,000 illegal